Thursday, March 12, 2020

The Dangers of Smoking While Pregnant essays

The Dangers of Smoking While Pregnant essays The Dangers of Smoking While Pregnant There is no clear evidence that smoking prior to pregnancy will harm a developing fetus, but it is well documented that smoking during pregnancy is very harmful. It affects the babys development in utero. Babies of smoking mothers are not as healthy at birth as babies of nonsmoking mothers. Pregnant women who smoke need to quit and give their babies the chance they deserve to be healthy and strong. Since smoking during pregnancy can be fatal to the baby, it should be illegal for pregnant women to smoke. As a Medical Assistant, I have studied the risks of smoking while pregnant. The following are a few of these risks. The fetus may not get enough oxygen and it may not be getting enough nutrition because the mother may be eating less. The baby may be too small and it may not grow well after birth. The baby may have breathing problems and it may be less healthy and less able to survive than babies of mothers who dont smoke. There are many more risks; these are just a few. If pregnant women quit smoking early in pregnancy it will reduce the risk of harm to their baby. The sooner they stop smoking, the better. According to the American Lung Association, Smoking during pregnancy is estimated to account for 20 to 30 percent of low-birth weight babies, up to 14 percent of preterm deliveries, and some 10 percent of all infant deaths (1). I have two girlfriends that smoked during their pregnancies, Nikki and Courtney. Nikkis baby, Lexi, was born one day overdue but only weighed four pounds, three ounces. When Courtney was 28 weeks into her pregnancy (12 weeks until full term) she went into labor and delivered preterm. Joey had a lot of health problems and still does. When he was born he had to have open-heart surgery, and had to be kept in an incubator at the hospital for two months. At three years old Joey developed respiratory disorders such as asthma...

Monday, February 24, 2020

The marketing concept and marketing communications Essay

The marketing concept and marketing communications - Essay Example 2002). Thinking of marketing less as a function and more as a set of values and processes (Moorman and Rust 1999) appears as the new vision of marketing. The survival and growth of a company therefore requires accurate knowledge about customers and careful relationship management. In this paper I look for the underlying principles of the new trends in marketing. In doing so, I focus first on exploring the new concept of marketing; then I show an example of new trends in marketing in AstraZeneca (See Appendix). After that, I tackle the concept of marketing communication with the case of Royal Caribbean Cruises (See Appendix). Finally I refer to conclusions. During the last few decades marketing has been challenged to undertake a paradigm shift away from the view of marketing as an optimization problem with an emphasis on product, price, promotion and distribution and toward a conceptualization of marketing as a set of activities focused on intra-firm and inter-organizational influence processes. As a result marketing has moved away from a focus on transactions as the fundamental unit of analysis and toward a focus on relationships with customers and suppliers (Webster et al. 2003). In addition, in this relationship the customer is no longer just a recipient of goods. The customer is viewed as a co-producer of service and therefore marketing is defined as a process of doing things in interaction with the customer (Vargo and Lusch 2004). Understanding relationship in marketing (RM) requires distinguishing between the discrete transaction, which has a distinct beginning, short duration, and sharp ending by performance, and relational exchange, which traces to previous agreements and is longer in duration, reflecting an ongoing process (Morgan and Hunt 1994). Numerous definitions of RM have been introduced in the literature since the beginning of 1990s reflecting the high attention of

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Training professionals have a leading role in innovation and change Essay - 4

Training professionals have a leading role in innovation and change - Essay Example the importance of training this important component to ensure consistent innovation that subsequently result into enhancing the organization’s competitive edge. This paper explores the role of professional training in promoting innovation and change in the current organizational setup. According to Omachonu and Einspruch (2010: 6), innovative duties require versatile people with ability to function in a wide conceptual environment. In addition, technical ability and proficient communication skills are important attributes for innovators. Unlike the previous specialists who specialized in a particular discipline, ability to multitask is a highly sought attribute in a professional in the current business environment. This implies that such a person can make valuable technical contributions and strategic decisions in diversified areas of business engagement. Therefore, promoting innovation culture in an organization does not only require recruitment of passionate innovators but also individuals with business acumen, enterprising character and negotiation skills (Resnick 2008). Recruiting a professional with these attributes requires more than just perusing resume or initiating volunteering programs in the organization. Therefore, organizations have become cognizant o f the need to incorporate training programs to promote innovation and positive change in their businesses. Various writers have investigated the role of training professionals in the current business environment in delivery of innovations. Bondarouk and Looise (2005: 163) classified the roles in context of three major human resources management issues, namely work structuring, organizing design and personnel issues. According to Bondarouk and Looise, (2005: 165) work should be structured in manner that encourages creativity and innovation. This includes changing the supervision model and creation of semi-independent teams in an organization. Work structure plays an important role in

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Einstein- Rosen Essay Example for Free

Einstein- Rosen Essay According to physicists worm holes which are also referred to as bridge of Einstein- Rosen are space time topological features that primarily create shortcut through time and space. A wormhole has a minimum of two mouths linked together by a single throat. Matter travels from mouth to mouth through the connecting throat. Wormholes that are intra universe links locations universe, by simply bending the space time and by allowing travel between different locations of the universe at a faster rate than light could take in order to cover the same distance through the normal space (McElwee, Para 2). Wormhole theory has been proven through the use of radio waves which are capable of detecting the wormholes. The white hole theory helps to explain the wormhole theory. The white hole is opposite of the black hole, whereas the black hole eats matter up the white hole splits it up. The wormhole acts like a tunnel that connects the black hole to the white hole. Since the existence of black holes and white holes is proven by use of radio waves to detect them, then the wormholes also exists to link them through a tunnel (Sexton, Para 4). The wormholes are also commonly referred to as Schwarzschild wormholes; they are bridges which are merely theoretical between space areas that are speculated to be in between the white holes and the black holes linking two universes. They only exists in equations especially those of Einstein. According to the equations the wormholes are found to be very unstable and would in fact fall instantly, the moment they are created. Other speculation also exists explaining that quasars are in fact white holes and not black holes which are super massive (McElwee, Para 5). It is not possible for the wormholes to exist since it is in fact impossible for a traveler to pass through the wormholes since it is not possible to pass a horizon in single direction. If non exotic matter form the traveler, then the moment they reach at the middle of the wormhole then it is impossible to leave through the other side and again it is not possible to leave using the entry route since the entry side must have been a black hole, this therefore, means that nothing can manage to escape once it has entered into the radius of the Schwarzschild. Thus the wormholes do not exist and are only a fiction feature and they can only be proven by theories with no practical to prove their existence (Sexton, Para 5). Black holes are basically deformation of the continuum of space time that appears once there is an explosion of a star in the scale of supernova with its remains becoming the black holes and neutron of stars. The gravitational force pulling the black holes is very powerful and cannot even be withstood by thousands of sun’s masses. The white holes on the other hand are opposite to the black holes. Their work is to split matter into smaller pieces instead of eating as it is the case for the black holes (McElwee, Para 7). Theoretically the white holes are reverse to the black holes; their being is implied by a solution of square root which is taken to be negative of the metric to the Schwarzschild. This metric is basically based on the time symmetry of general relativity. This implies that the best definitions of white holes which can be taken to be technical are primarily black holes running in the reverse direction. This is location of space time which is not possible to reach instead of failing to escape (Kruglinski, Para 6). Conclusion The wormholes, black and white holes can only be explained theoretically even though it is possible to detect them by use of radio waves. Their existence therefore, remains theoretical as it is not supported by substantial practical evidence. But this cannot be taken to mean that they do not exist since more research work is being carried out and may be their existence might soon be revealed practically. Work cited: Kruglinski, Susan; Discover Interview the Man Who Imagined Wormholes and Schooled Hawking (2007): Retrieved on 3rd June 2009 from, http://discovermagazine. com/2007/nov/the-man-who-imagined-wormholes-and-schooled-hawking/article_view? b_start:int=2-C=. McElwee, Jim; Do wormholes exist? (2005): Retrieved on 3rd June 2009 from, http://www. unexplainable. net/artman/publish/article_2145. shtml. Sexton, Timothy; Do Wormholes Really Exist? (2009): Retrieved on 3rd June 2009 from, http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/1453128/do_wormholes_really_exist. html.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Jim Morrison Essay example -- essays research papers

I don't quite recall when I first heard a Doors' song, but I could safely assume that it was Jim Morrison wailing the tune "Light My Fire" or "Break on Through". After all, these two anthems are the foundations upon which the Doors' legend was built, and to this day remain the band's gems. But as I have come to learn through the years of reading about and scouring over regurgitated bits of information of this group is that they are so much more than a member of the genre of those 1960s bands who musically fell in love with drugs, love, and repetitive choruses. Gathering knowledge from a countless number of books, newspaper articles, and documentaries about the band's lead singer, Jim Morrison, has led me to scorn the drunken, obnoxious hippie identity that a majority of the public has perceived him to be some thirty years after his passing. There was a time when I shared these prejudicial views with the casual listeners, but it's been quite a long road to persona lly come to the conclusion that Jim was a poet who had something valuable to say when he was performing. However, a public misconception of Morrison and the Doors still remains, and will linger for the simple reason that we cannot re-live the late 1960s and become acquainted with this rock n roll icon. Thus, this very fact incited me to gain a better understanding of the legend that's been bogged in criticism for the last thirty years. Now, before I commend Jim for all that he's accomplished in his twenty-seven years on this earth, it is only reasonable and fair to point out that he was not flawless. He was not one to compromise with authority, and undoubtedly expiremented in drugs and risky situations. Indeed, he often put himself in danger, and the result was a payment of the ultimate price: death. Death from years of alcohol abuse, late night partying, and frolicking around town. Death from a haggard soul that had done and seen almost everything that anyone could conceive. However, it should be cited that he had never purposely intended to harm another soul on his downward spiral through life. He would often saturate his mind with liquor, but consciously close the flood gates just as he was to plummet from the edge of sanity. The same "loud-mouthed, insane, drug-induced monster" who once sang with a straight face of killing his father and having sexual intercourse wi... ...e suicide of a twenty-seven year old rock star that at one time seemingly had it all. However, I wouldn't be doing my duty as a Doors fan if I were to simply accept the fact that Jim Morrison, the Lizard King, took his own life solely because of a disappointment with life. The critics; the media; the same people who adored and worshipped Morrison when he was a do-good American pop icon pushed their beloved son until he couldn't handle life any more. They criticized and publicly crucified Jim Morrison for having an open mind and expressing himself through his music. The same country that was built on the right that gave every citizen allowance to voice his or her opinion on the state of society killed Jim Morrison for doing just that. The land of the free....... Jim was led to his demise by the cruel surrounding we call our society. He couldn't take the pain anymore, so there was one surefire way to end it all. As he was notorious for doing, he worded it best in the Doors' classic "The Soft Parade" by surrendering himself: "Can you give me sancuary?/ I must find a place to hide.......Can you find me soft asylum?/ I can't make it anymore/ The Man is at the door."

Monday, January 13, 2020

Designing lesson tasks and materials

TASKS AND MATERIALS DESIGNED Willis ( 1996 ) has proposed a elaborate model for forming lessons which involves the phases of pre-task, undertaking and linguistic communication focal point. In the first phase, the instructor introduces the subject and pupils are involved in a communicative undertaking that will assist them remember words and phrases and brainstorm thoughts that might be utile in executing the chief undertaking. What follows is what Willis calls the ‘task cycle’ in which scholars perform the existent undertaking, in braces or groups. Then, they prepare a study and show their findings to the category. As Manolopoulou-Sergi references, â€Å"after that is their attending directed towards specific characteristics of linguistic communication signifier† ( Manolopoulou-Sergi et al. , 2004:171 ) . In add-on, as Carless observesâ€Å"the post-task stage can besides lend to reminding students†¦that while the undertaking may hold been gratifying, there were serious larning purposes underpinning it†( Carless, 2007:604 ) . The three adapted undertakings follow the aforesaid undertaking construction proposed by Willis. Undertaking 1 ( see Appendix II ) focuses on developing reading, listening, speech production and composing accomplishments utilizing communicative teaching method in a series of undertakings taking to steer pupils in developing the accomplishments necessary to form an original travel path. The subject is derived from the text edition ‘On Screen’ but everything else has been changed. More specifically, the pre-task or ‘warm-up’ activity attempts to trip content scheme, pulling on students’ bing cognition ( see Appendix II ) . The existent undertaking is a saber saw reading undertaking which serves both as an reliable input and it is besides an illustration of the mark undertaking pupils are so asked to make. In finishing the mark undertaking, pupils need to entree Google maps and follow the finish described in the reading text. Therefore, scholars will go more familiar with some tourer sites in Athens, every bit good as let the usage of engineering in a purposeful manner as they may be asked to make in existent life. Furthermore, pupils in groups of 2 or 3 are asked to develop a twenty-four hours path in their country for a friend abroad taking into consideration his/her likes and disfavors ( see Appendix II ) . Giving pupils the chance to seek on a different country will ask ‘coaction and interaction’in order to successfully finish the undertaking ( information spread ) . In add-on, though this undertaking pupils will develop travel related vocabulary. Students are so asked to show their paths in forepart of the category which will actuate them to make well-designed and interesting paths. Finally, in the post-phase, the instructor leads a treatment on the completed undertaking ( the presentation ) which will unite a linguistic communication focal point every bit good as acknowledging of import information from the publi shed article that should hold been included in the students’ presentation. What follows is a repeat of the schemes of a well-designed presentation/speech ( mentioning to a old unit ) and an existent presentation of the published article, therefore, giving scholars the chance to pattern the process and linguistic communication of a presentation one time more. Traveling on to Task 2, as a pre-task pupils are asked to bring forth a text ( see Appendix II ) through quickwriting. The undertaking is contextualized by supplying a intent and audience. Students are so encouraged to compare their quickwritings with another schoolmate and make up one's mind on a intent for composing. Therefore, pupils are asked to reflect on their Hagiographas and assist them develop schemes required in cognition transforming. In the task-cycle pupils are foremost introduced to a gap-filling activity which may non be an open-ended, procedure oriented activity or may non supply for specific written results, but will prosecute scholars in originative and synergistic ( with the speech production activity at the terminal ) state of affairss bring forthing thoughts for the existent authorship and giving scholars a feeling of success. Then, what follows is a 2nd bill of exchange and a alteration of it where pupils have the opportunity to measure their equals at a non-fin al phase with the aid of specific rating points. Through this, pupils are encouraged to portion ( verbal studies ) among themselves and assist them understand what goes in the writer’s and reader’s head and what schemes to utilize in order to acquire intending through a text ( metacognitive scheme ) . Furthermore, the following and concluding phase involves linguistic communication consciousness exercisings which are designed with the lone intent to bring forth more thoughts before pupils start composing their concluding bill of exchanges ( see Appendix II ) . Overall, this undertaking and the three phase intervention of composing a text is to let pupils to command, modify and farther develop their merchandise. Geting started can be hard and therefore, in the 3rd undertaking the instructor foremost introduces the subject and encourages scholars to brainstorm thoughts with the usage of wordlists ( see Appendix II ) . Then, in the task-cycle pupils are divided into groups sharing thoughts on a problem-solving activity where they have to come up with a text utilizing specific words and phrases given by the instructor. This collaborative authorship is particularly valuable as it involves other accomplishments as good ( e.g. talking ) . In add-on, this problem-solving activity will advance dialogue of significance andâ€Å"push scholars to prosecute in checking and clear uping as they go along†( Skehan, 2002:291 ) . Once each group has completed the text, they will be encouraged to show it in category and the remainder of the pupils to notice on it, therefore paying attending on signifier by holding the chance to ‘become teachers’ . Finally, in the last phase there is a liste ning activity in which pupils are asked to place specific words from the wordlist and so make full in the spreads of the paragraphs ( see Appendix II ) . The post-task stage is a opportunity to concentrate on linguistic communication and as Carless saysâ€Å"it is important to take the kids see the connexion between the undertaking they have merely done and some linguistic communication work†( Carless, 2007:601 ) . Scaling AND SEQUENCING CRITERIA Rating and sequencing of undertakings is so a major challenge for instructors and task-based course of study interior decorators. Therefore, a figure of theoretical accounts and standards for rating and sequencing undertakings have been developed. Two of the most popular models for the sequencing of undertakings are Skehan’s ( 1996 ) and Robinson’s ( 2001 ) . Although the procedure of rating and sequencing undertakings seems arbitrary and harmonizing to teachers’ judgement, I have chosen Robinson’s model to place ‘task complexity’ and later usage for the scaling of my undertakings. The ground for taking Robinson is as Steenkamp et Al. specifies â€Å"Robinson conducted research to find the function of undertaking sequencing in learners’ production† ( Steenkamp et al. , 2011:13 ) and I am covering with a productive country, that of authorship. Robinson distinguishes three factors that influence the complexness of a undertaking viz. â€Å"cognitively defined undertaking complexness, scholars perceptual experience of undertaking trouble and the synergistic conditions under which undertakings are performed† ( Robinson, 2001b:27 ) . Task trouble and undertaking conditions are factors that might act upon methodological analysis and the determinations instructors will be asked to do for successful undertaking completion, but as they deal largely with learners’ affectional sensitivity and ability factors they can non be manipulated beforehand. In contrast, as Robinson states â€Å"undertaking complexness is the exclusive footing of pedagogic undertaking sequence† ( Robinson, 2007 in Steenkamp et al. , 2011:18 ) , and it has to make with the undertaking itself. Therefore, it can be manipulated and predicted in progress. Furthermore, Robinson claims that â€Å"the greater the cognitive demands of a undertaking , the more they engage cognitive resources ( attending and memory ) an so are likely to concentrate attending on input and end product which will hold public presentation effects† ( Manolopoulou-Sergi et al. , 2004:176-177 ) . Along these lines, I focused on the factors that influence cognitive complexness such as  ± individual undertaking,  ± prior cognition,  ± planning clip,  ± there and now,  ± concluding and more ( see Appendix III ) . In peculiar, the undertakings presented in the old subdivision are sequenced this manner chiefly because I want scholars to set about activities which become progressively demanding, i.e. traveling from comprehension-based activities ( saber saw reading/ Task 1/ see Appendix II ) to controlled production activities and exercisings ( pros and cons of nomadic phones/ Task 2/ see Appendix II ) and eventually to activities affecting reliable communicating and interaction ( carnival/ Task 3/ see Appendix II ) . Additionally, undertakings with closed results ( Task 1 ) should be presented before more open-ended undertakings ( Task 3 ) as they will be easier to carry through and participants can direct their effects more purposefully as there is merely one correct re ply ( see Appendix IV B ) . Furthermore, undertakings affecting duologues should continue those affecting soliloquies every bit good as describing speeches/ presentations that might be extremely complex for scholars and need truth and eloquence to be accomplished. All three undertakings include consciousness-raising activities ( listening or reading transcripts of comparing, see Appendix II ) so as to â€Å"diminish the cognitive burden of the chief undertaking which comes afterwards. Therefore, scholars can be induced to remember conventional cognition they already have which is relevant to the undertaking they will make† ( Manolopoulou-Sergi et al. , 2004:180 ) . Similarly, the undertakings require mention largely to events go oning now as the attending is drawn on learners’ eloquence although much more cognitively demanding mention to events go oning elsewhere in clip and infinite could be added.â€Å"There is flexibleness in timing and grouping, with alternate functions being assigned to pupils at different times, and groups being rearranged in different ways, to supply more chances for students to ordain different roles† ,( Carless, 2002:394 ) . Another factor taken into history in sequencing undertakings is one manner or two manner constellation of information. â€Å"In a one-way constellation, all of the information related to the undertaking is given to one scholar who must pass on it to the other. In a bipartisan constellation the information is related to the undertaking is distributed among all of the scholars who must portion and incorporate it. In this respect, one manner undertakings promote less dialogue of intendi ng than two-way undertakings which affects the complexness of the tasks†( Ahmadi, 2014:338 ) , and hence should continue bipartisan undertakings. Finally, clip force per unit area put on pupils ( which will overload students’ attending ) and the support they have from their instructor or other scholars ( more support will perchance ease the undertaking ) are taken into history. Gradually increasing the complexness of undertakings is of import as it â€Å"may motivate scholars to look for more and more aid in the input, go toing to facilitative signifiers made salient by teacher intercession† ( Manolopoulou-Sergi et al. , 2004:178 ) . However, what is more of import for me is to increase the complexness of pedagogic demands in order to bit by bit come close the complexness of the existent universe.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Queen Annes Revenge - Blackbeards Pirate Ship

The Queen Annes Revenge was a massive pirate ship commanded by Edward Blackbeard Teach in 1717-18. Originally a French slaving vessel that Blackbeard captured and modified, it was one of the most formidable pirate ships ever, carrying 40 cannons and enough room for plenty of men and loot. The Queen Annes Revenge was capable of fighting off nearly any Navy warship afloat at the time. It sank in 1718, and many believe that Blackbeard scuttled it on purpose. The wreck has been found and has turned up a treasure trove of pirate artifacts. From Concorde to Queen Annes Revenge On November 17, 1717, Blackbeard captured La Concorde, a French slaving vessel. He realized that it would make a perfect pirate ship. It was large yet fast and big enough to mount 40 cannons on board. He renamed it Queen Annes Revenge: the name referred to Anne, Queen of England and Scotland (1665-1714). Many pirates, including Blackbeard, were Jacobites: this meant that they favored the return of the throne of Great Britain from the House of Hanover to the House of Stuart. It had changed hands after Annes death. The Ultimate Pirate Ship Blackbeard preferred to intimidate his victims into surrendering, as fights were costly. For several months in 1717-18, Blackbeard used the Queen Annes Revenge to effectively terrorize shipping in the Atlantic. Between the massive frigate and his own fearsome appearance and reputation, Blackbeards victims rarely put up a fight and handed over their cargoes peacefully.  He plundered the shipping lanes at will. He was even able to blockade the port of Charleston for a week in April of 1718, looting several ships. The town gave him a valuable chest full of medicines to make him go away. The Queen Annes Revenge Sinks In June of 1718, the Queen Annes Revenge hit a sandbar off of North Carolina and had to be abandoned. Blackbeard took the opportunity to make off with all of the loot and a select few of his favorite pirates, leaving the others (including hapless pirate Stede Bonnet) to fend for themselves. Because Blackbeard went legit (sort of) for a little while after that, many thought he scuttled his flagship on purpose. Within a few months, Blackbeard would return to piracy and on November 22, 1718, he was killed by pirate hunters in a pitched battle off of North Carolina. The Wreck of the Queen Anne’s Revenge In 1996, a shipwreck believed to be that of the Queen Annes Revenge was discovered off of North Carolina. For 15 years it was excavated and studied, and in 2011 it was confirmed to be Blackbeards ship. The shipwreck has yielded many interesting artifacts, including weapons, cannons, medical gear and a massive anchor. Juha Flinkman, SubZone OY / CC BY-SA 4.0 / Wikimedia Commons Many of the artifacts are on display at North Carolinas Maritime museum and can be viewed by the public. The opening of the exhibit drew record crowds, a testament to Blackbeards lasting reputation and popularity. Sources Cordingly, David. Under the Black Flag New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 1996Defoe, Daniel (Captain Charles Johnson). A General History of the Pyrates. Edited by Manuel Schonhorn. Mineola: Dover Publications, 1972/1999.Konstam, Angus. The World Atlas of Pirates. Guilford: the Lyons Press, 2009Konstam, Angus. The Pirate Ship 1660-1730. New York: Osprey, 2003.